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Ubuntu Server 14.04 下安装 PostgreSQL 9.3.5 数据库

Ubuntu Server 14.04 下安装 PostgreSQL 9.3.5 开源数据库

PostgreSQL 是一个自由开源对象-关系型数据库服务器 (数据库管理系统),在 BSD 许可下发行。PostgreSQL 可免费使用、修改和分发,不管是私用、商用、还是学术研究用。PostgreSQL 提供了相对其他开源数据库系统 (譬如:MySQL 和 Firebird) 和专有数据库系统 (譬如:Oracle、Sybase、IBM 的 DB2 和 Microsoft SQL Server) 之外的另一种选择。

PostgreSQL 不寻常的名字导致一些读者停下来尝试拼读它,特别是那些把 SQL 拼读为 “sequel” 的人。PostgreSQL 开发者把它拼读为”post-gress-Q-L”。它也经常被简略念为 “postgres”。

PostgreSQL 是以 “加州大学伯克利分校” 计算机系开发的 POSTGRES (现更名为 PostgreSQL) 版本 4.2 为基础的对象关系型数据库管理系统 (ORDBMS)。PostgreSQL 支持大部分 SQL 标准且提供了许多其他现代特性,包括:复杂查询、外键、触发器、视图、事务完整性、MVCC。同样,PostgreSQL 可用许多方法扩展;譬如:通过增加新数据类型、函数、操作符、聚集函数、索引。

01、以 apt-get 方式安装 PostgreSQL 9.3.5

root:# apt-get install postgresql
正在读取软件包列表… 完成
正在分析软件包的依赖关系树     
正在读取状态信息… 完成     
将会安装下列额外的软件包:
  libpq5 postgresql-9.3 postgresql-client-9.3 postgresql-client-common
  postgresql-common ssl-cert
建议安装的软件包:
  oidentd ident-server locales-all postgresql-doc-9.3 openssl-blacklist
下列【新】软件包将被安装:
  libpq5 postgresql postgresql-9.3 postgresql-client-9.3
  postgresql-client-common postgresql-common ssl-cert
升级了 0 个软件包,新安装了 7 个软件包,要卸载 0 个软件包,有 0 个软件包未被升级。
需要下载 3,682 kB 的软件包。
解压缩后会消耗掉 15.5 MB 的额外空间。
您希望继续执行吗? [Y/n] y
获取:1 [url]http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/[/url] trusty-updates/main libpq5 amd64 9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1 [80.6 kB]
获取:2 [url]http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/[/url] trusty/main postgresql-client-common all 154 [25.4 kB]
获取:3 [url]http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/[/url] trusty-updates/main postgresql-client-9.3 amd64 9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1 [782 kB]
获取:4 [url]http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/[/url] trusty/main ssl-cert all 1.0.33 [16.6 kB]
获取:5 [url]http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/[/url] trusty/main postgresql-common all 154 [103 kB]
获取:6 [url]http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/[/url] trusty-updates/main postgresql-9.3 amd64 9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1 [2,670 kB]
获取:7 [url]http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/[/url] trusty/main postgresql all 9.3+154 [5,088 B]
下载 3,682 kB,耗时 9秒 (402 kB/s)                                           
正在预设定软件包 …
Selecting previously unselected package libpq5.
(正在读取数据库 … 系统当前共安装有 85656 个文件和目录。)
Preparing to unpack …/libpq5_9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1_amd64.deb …
Unpacking libpq5 (9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1) …
Selecting previously unselected package postgresql-client-common.
Preparing to unpack …/postgresql-client-common_154_all.deb …
Unpacking postgresql-client-common (154) …
Selecting previously unselected package postgresql-client-9.3.
Preparing to unpack …/postgresql-client-9.3_9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1_amd64.deb …
Unpacking postgresql-client-9.3 (9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1) …
Selecting previously unselected package ssl-cert.
Preparing to unpack …/ssl-cert_1.0.33_all.deb …
Unpacking ssl-cert (1.0.33) …
Selecting previously unselected package postgresql-common.
Preparing to unpack …/postgresql-common_154_all.deb …
正在添加 postgresql-common 导致 /usr/bin/pg_config 本地修改至 /usr/bin/pg_config.libpq-dev
Unpacking postgresql-common (154) …
Selecting previously unselected package postgresql-9.3.
Preparing to unpack …/postgresql-9.3_9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1_amd64.deb …
Unpacking postgresql-9.3 (9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1) …
Selecting previously unselected package postgresql.
Preparing to unpack …/postgresql_9.3+154_all.deb …
Unpacking postgresql (9.3+154) …
Processing triggers for man-db (2.6.7.1-1ubuntu1) …
Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-16) …
ureadahead will be reprofiled on next reboot
正在设置 libpq5 (9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1) …
正在设置 postgresql-client-common (154) …
正在设置 postgresql-client-9.3 (9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1) …
update-alternatives: using /usr/share/postgresql/9.3/man/man1/psql.1.gz to provide /usr/share/man/man1/psql.1.gz (psql.1.gz) in 自动模式
正在设置 ssl-cert (1.0.33) …
正在设置 postgresql-common (154) …
Adding user postgres to group ssl-cert

Creating config file /etc/logrotate.d/postgresql-common with new version
Building PostgreSQL dictionaries from installed myspell/hunspell packages…
Removing obsolete dictionary files:
 * No PostgreSQL clusters exist; see “man pg_createcluster”
Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-16) …
正在设置 postgresql-9.3 (9.3.5-0ubuntu0.14.04.1) …
Creating new cluster 9.3/main …
  config /etc/postgresql/9.3/main
  data  /var/lib/postgresql/9.3/main
  locale zh_CN.UTF-8
  port  5432
update-alternatives: using /usr/share/postgresql/9.3/man/man1/postmaster.1.gz to provide /usr/share/man/man1/postmaster.1.gz (postmaster.1.gz) in 自动模式
 * Starting PostgreSQL 9.3 database server                                                                                                        [ OK ]
正在设置 postgresql (9.3+154) …
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-0ubuntu6.5) …
root:#

02、设置 Ubuntu Server 14.04 系统 postgres 用户登陆口令

root:# passwd postgres
输入新的 UNIX 密码:
重新输入新的 UNIX 密码:
passwd: password updated successfully
root:#

03、切换到 postgres 系统用户

root:# su – postgres 或 sudo -i -u postgres
postgres:~$

04、登录 postgres 数据库

postgres:~$ psql postgres
psql (9.3.5)
Type “help” for help.

postgres=#    #postgres 命令提示符

05、将 postgres 数据库用户口令设为 postgres 或其它

postgres=# ALTER USER postgres with PASSWORD ‘postgres’;
ALTER ROLE
postgres=# \q
could not save history to file “/var/lib/postgresql/.psql_history”: 没有那个文件或目录    #重新登录就可以了,由于第一次文件是不存在的
postgres:~$

06、再次登陆 postgres 数据库,再将 postgres 数据库用户口令设为 postgres 或其它

postgres:~$ psql postgres
psql (9.3.5)
Type “help” for help.

postgres=# ALTER USER postgres with PASSWORD ‘postgres’;
ALTER ROLE
postgres=# \q
postgres:~$

07、修改 PostgresSQL 数据库配置文件 postgresql.conf

vi /etc/postgresql/9.3/main/postgresql.conf

修改前的配置文件

# —————————–
# PostgreSQL configuration file
# —————————–
#
# This file consists of lines of the form:
#
#  name = value
#
# (The “=” is optional.)  Whitespace may be used.  Comments are introduced with
# “#” anywhere on a line.  The complete list of parameter names and allowed
# values can be found in the PostgreSQL documentation.
#
# The commented-out settings shown in this file represent the default values.
# Re-commenting a setting is NOT sufficient to revert it to the default value;
# you need to reload the server.
#
# This file is read on server startup and when the server receives a SIGHUP
# signal.  If you edit the file on a running system, you have to SIGHUP the
# server for the changes to take effect, or use “pg_ctl reload”.  Some
# parameters, which are marked below, require a server shutdown and restart to
# take effect.
#
# Any parameter can also be given as a command-line option to the server, e.g.,
# “postgres -c log_connections=on”.  Some parameters can be changed at run time
# with the “SET” SQL command.
#
# Memory units:  kB = kilobytes        Time units:  ms  = milliseconds
#                MB = megabytes                    s  = seconds
#                GB = gigabytes                    min = minutes
#                                                  h  = hours
#                                                  d  = days

#——————————————————————————
# FILE LOCATIONS
#——————————————————————————

# The default values of these variables are driven from the -D command-line
# option or PGDATA environment variable, represented here as ConfigDir.

data_directory = ‘/var/lib/postgresql/9.3/main’        # use data in another directory
                    # (change requires restart)
hba_file = ‘/etc/postgresql/9.3/main/pg_hba.conf’    # host-based authentication file
                    # (change requires restart)
ident_file = ‘/etc/postgresql/9.3/main/pg_ident.conf’    # ident configuration file
                    # (change requires restart)

# If external_pid_file is not explicitly set, no extra PID file is written.
external_pid_file = ‘/var/run/postgresql/9.3-main.pid’            # write an extra PID file
                    # (change requires restart)

#——————————————————————————
# CONNECTIONS AND AUTHENTICATION
#——————————————————————————

# – Connection Settings –

#listen_addresses = ‘localhost’        # what IP address(es) to listen on;
                    # comma-separated list of addresses;
                    # defaults to ‘localhost’; use ‘*’ for all
                    # (change requires restart)
port = 5432                # (change requires restart)
max_connections = 100            # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Increasing max_connections costs ~400 bytes of shared memory per
# connection slot, plus lock space (see max_locks_per_transaction).
#superuser_reserved_connections = 3    # (change requires restart)
unix_socket_directories = ‘/var/run/postgresql’    # comma-separated list of directories
                    # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_group = ”            # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_permissions = 0777        # begin with 0 to use octal notation
                    # (change requires restart)
#bonjour = off                # advertise server via Bonjour
                    # (change requires restart)
#bonjour_name = ”            # defaults to the computer name
                    # (change requires restart)

# – Security and Authentication –

#authentication_timeout = 1min        # 1s-600s
ssl = true                # (change requires restart)
#ssl_ciphers = ‘DEFAULT:!LOW:!EXP:!MD5:@STRENGTH’    # allowed SSL ciphers
                    # (change requires restart)
#ssl_renegotiation_limit = 512MB    # amount of data between renegotiations
ssl_cert_file = ‘/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem’        # (change requires restart)
ssl_key_file = ‘/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key’        # (change requires restart)
#ssl_ca_file = ”            # (change requires restart)
#ssl_crl_file = ”            # (change requires restart)
#password_encryption = on
#db_user_namespace = off

# Kerberos and GSSAPI
#krb_server_keyfile = ”
#krb_srvname = ‘postgres’        # (Kerberos only)
#krb_caseins_users = off

# – TCP Keepalives –
# see “man 7 tcp” for details

#tcp_keepalives_idle = 0        # TCP_KEEPIDLE, in seconds;
                    # 0 selects the system default
#tcp_keepalives_interval = 0        # TCP_KEEPINTVL, in seconds;
                    # 0 selects the system default
#tcp_keepalives_count = 0        # TCP_KEEPCNT;
                    # 0 selects the system default

#——————————————————————————
# RESOURCE USAGE (except WAL)
#——————————————————————————

# – Memory –

shared_buffers = 128MB            # min 128kB
                    # (change requires restart)
#temp_buffers = 8MB            # min 800kB
#max_prepared_transactions = 0        # zero disables the feature
                    # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Increasing max_prepared_transactions costs ~600 bytes of shared memory
# per transaction slot, plus lock space (see max_locks_per_transaction).
# It is not advisable to set max_prepared_transactions nonzero unless you
# actively intend to use prepared transactions.
#work_mem = 1MB                # min 64kB
#maintenance_work_mem = 16MB        # min 1MB
#max_stack_depth = 2MB            # min 100kB

# – Disk –

#temp_file_limit = -1            # limits per-session temp file space
                    # in kB, or -1 for no limit

# – Kernel Resource Usage –

#max_files_per_process = 1000        # min 25
                    # (change requires restart)
#shared_preload_libraries = ”        # (change requires restart)

# – Cost-Based Vacuum Delay –

#vacuum_cost_delay = 0            # 0-100 milliseconds
#vacuum_cost_page_hit = 1        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_page_miss = 10        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_page_dirty = 20        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_limit = 200        # 1-10000 credits

# – Background Writer –

#bgwriter_delay = 200ms            # 10-10000ms between rounds
#bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 100        # 0-1000 max buffers written/round
#bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 2.0        # 0-10.0 multipler on buffers scanned/round

# – Asynchronous Behavior –

#effective_io_concurrency = 1        # 1-1000; 0 disables prefetching

#——————————————————————————
# WRITE AHEAD LOG
#——————————————————————————

# – Settings –

#wal_level = minimal            # minimal, archive, or hot_standby
                    # (change requires restart)
#fsync = on                # turns forced synchronization on or off
#synchronous_commit = on        # synchronization level;
                    # off, local, remote_write, or on
#wal_sync_method = fsync        # the default is the first option
                    # supported by the operating system:
                    #  open_datasync
                    #  fdatasync (default on Linux)
                    #  fsync
                    #  fsync_writethrough
                    #  open_sync
#full_page_writes = on            # recover from partial page writes
#wal_buffers = -1            # min 32kB, -1 sets based on shared_buffers
                    # (change requires restart)
#wal_writer_delay = 200ms        # 1-10000 milliseconds

#commit_delay = 0            # range 0-100000, in microseconds
#commit_siblings = 5            # range 1-1000

# – Checkpoints –

#checkpoint_segments = 3        # in logfile segments, min 1, 16MB each
#checkpoint_timeout = 5min        # range 30s-1h
#checkpoint_completion_target = 0.5    # checkpoint target duration, 0.0 – 1.0
#checkpoint_warning = 30s        # 0 disables

# – Archiving –

#archive_mode = off        # allows archiving to be done
                # (change requires restart)
#archive_command = ”        # command to use to archive a logfile segment
                # placeholders: %p = path of file to archive
                #              %f = file name only
                # e.g. ‘test ! -f /mnt/server/archivedir/%f && cp %p /mnt/server/archivedir/%f’
#archive_timeout = 0        # force a logfile segment switch after this
                # number of seconds; 0 disables

#——————————————————————————
# REPLICATION
#——————————————————————————

# – Sending Server(s) –

# Set these on the master and on any standby that will send replication data.

#max_wal_senders = 0        # max number of walsender processes
                # (change requires restart)
#wal_keep_segments = 0        # in logfile segments, 16MB each; 0 disables
#wal_sender_timeout = 60s    # in milliseconds; 0 disables

# – Master Server –

# These settings are ignored on a standby server.

#synchronous_standby_names = ”    # standby servers that provide sync rep
                # comma-separated list of application_name
                # from standby(s); ‘*’ = all
#vacuum_defer_cleanup_age = 0    # number of xacts by which cleanup is delayed

# – Standby Servers –

# These settings are ignored on a master server.

#hot_standby = off            # “on” allows queries during recovery
                    # (change requires restart)
#max_standby_archive_delay = 30s    # max delay before canceling queries
                    # when reading WAL from archive;
                    # -1 allows indefinite delay
#max_standby_streaming_delay = 30s    # max delay before canceling queries
                    # when reading streaming WAL;
                    # -1 allows indefinite delay
#wal_receiver_status_interval = 10s    # send replies at least this often
                    # 0 disables
#hot_standby_feedback = off        # send info from standby to prevent
                    # query conflicts
#wal_receiver_timeout = 60s        # time that receiver waits for
                    # communication from master
                    # in milliseconds; 0 disables

#——————————————————————————
# QUERY TUNING
#——————————————————————————

# – Planner Method Configuration –

#enable_bitmapscan = on
#enable_hashagg = on
#enable_hashjoin = on
#enable_indexscan = on
#enable_indexonlyscan = on
#enable_material = on
#enable_mergejoin = on
#enable_nestloop = on
#enable_seqscan = on
#enable_sort = on
#enable_tidscan = on

# – Planner Cost Constants –

#seq_page_cost = 1.0            # measured on an arbitrary scale
#random_page_cost = 4.0            # same scale as above
#cpu_tuple_cost = 0.01            # same scale as above
#cpu_index_tuple_cost = 0.005        # same scale as above
#cpu_operator_cost = 0.0025        # same scale as above
#effective_cache_size = 128MB

# – Genetic Query Optimizer –

#geqo = on
#geqo_threshold = 12
#geqo_effort = 5            # range 1-10
#geqo_pool_size = 0            # selects default based on effort
#geqo_generations = 0            # selects default based on effort
#geqo_selection_bias = 2.0        # range 1.5-2.0
#geqo_seed = 0.0            # range 0.0-1.0

# – Other Planner Options –

#default_statistics_target = 100    # range 1-10000
#constraint_exclusion = partition    # on, off, or partition
#cursor_tuple_fraction = 0.1        # range 0.0-1.0
#from_collapse_limit = 8
#join_collapse_limit = 8        # 1 disables collapsing of explicit
                    # JOIN clauses

#——————————————————————————
# ERROR REPORTING AND LOGGING
#——————————————————————————

# – Where to Log –

#log_destination = ‘stderr’        # Valid values are combinations of
                    # stderr, csvlog, syslog, and eventlog,
                    # depending on platform.  csvlog
                    # requires logging_collector to be on.

# This is used when logging to stderr:
#logging_collector = off        # Enable capturing of stderr and csvlog
                    # into log files. Required to be on for
                    # csvlogs.
                    # (change requires restart)

# These are only used if logging_collector is on:
#log_directory = ‘pg_log’        # directory where log files are written,
                    # can be absolute or relative to PGDATA
#log_filename = ‘postgresql-%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S.log’    # log file name pattern,
                    # can include strftime() escapes
#log_file_mode = 0600            # creation mode for log files,
                    # begin with 0 to use octal notation
#log_truncate_on_rotation = off        # If on, an existing log file with the
                    # same name as the new log file will be
                    # truncated rather than appended to.
                    # But such truncation only occurs on
                    # time-driven rotation, not on restarts
                    # or size-driven rotation.  Default is
                    # off, meaning append to existing files
                    # in all cases.
#log_rotation_age = 1d            # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
                    # happen after that time.  0 disables.
#log_rotation_size = 10MB        # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
                    # happen after that much log output.
                    # 0 disables.

# These are relevant when logging to syslog:
#syslog_facility = ‘LOCAL0’
#syslog_ident = ‘postgres’

# This is only relevant when logging to eventlog (win32):
#event_source = ‘PostgreSQL’

# – When to Log –

#client_min_messages = notice        # values in order of decreasing detail:
                    #  debug5
                    #  debug4
                    #  debug3
                    #  debug2
                    #  debug1
                    #  log
                    #  notice
                    #  warning
                    #  error

#log_min_messages = warning        # values in order of decreasing detail:
                    #  debug5
                    #  debug4
                    #  debug3
                    #  debug2
                    #  debug1
                    #  info
                    #  notice
                    #  warning
                    #  error
                    #  log
                    #  fatal
                    #  panic

#log_min_error_statement = error    # values in order of decreasing detail:
                    #  debug5
                    #  debug4
                    #  debug3
                    #  debug2
                    #  debug1
                    #  info
                    #  notice
                    #  warning
                    #  error
                    #  log
                    #  fatal
                    #  panic (effectively off)

#log_min_duration_statement = -1    # -1 is disabled, 0 logs all statements
                    # and their durations, > 0 logs only
                    # statements running at least this number
                    # of milliseconds

# – What to Log –

#debug_print_parse = off
#debug_print_rewritten = off
#debug_print_plan = off
#debug_pretty_print = on
#log_checkpoints = off
#log_connections = off
#log_disconnections = off
#log_duration = off
#log_error_verbosity = default        # terse, default, or verbose messages
#log_hostname = off
log_line_prefix = ‘%t ‘            # special values:
                    #  %a = application name
                    #  %u = user name
                    #  %d = database name
                    #  %r = remote host and port
                    #  %h = remote host
                    #  %p = process ID
                    #  %t = timestamp without milliseconds
                    #  %m = timestamp with milliseconds
                    #  %i = command tag
                    #  %e = SQL state
                    #  %c = session ID
                    #  %l = session line number
                    #  %s = session start timestamp
                    #  %v = virtual transaction ID
                    #  %x = transaction ID (0 if none)
                    #  %q = stop here in non-session
                    #        processes
                    #  %% = ‘%’
                    # e.g. ‘<%u%%%d> ‘
#log_lock_waits = off            # log lock waits >= deadlock_timeout
#log_statement = ‘none’            # none, ddl, mod, all
#log_temp_files = -1            # log temporary files equal or larger
                    # than the specified size in kilobytes;
                    # -1 disables, 0 logs all temp files
log_timezone = ‘PRC’

#——————————————————————————
# RUNTIME STATISTICS
#——————————————————————————

# – Query/Index Statistics Collector –

#track_activities = on
#track_counts = on
#track_io_timing = off
#track_functions = none            # none, pl, all
#track_activity_query_size = 1024    # (change requires restart)
#update_process_title = on
#stats_temp_directory = ‘pg_stat_tmp’

# – Statistics Monitoring –

#log_parser_stats = off
#log_planner_stats = off
#log_executor_stats = off
#log_statement_stats = off

#——————————————————————————
# AUTOVACUUM PARAMETERS
#——————————————————————————

#autovacuum = on            # Enable autovacuum subprocess?  ‘on’
                    # requires track_counts to also be on.
#log_autovacuum_min_duration = -1    # -1 disables, 0 logs all actions and
                    # their durations, > 0 logs only
                    # actions running at least this number
                    # of milliseconds.
#autovacuum_max_workers = 3        # max number of autovacuum subprocesses
                    # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_naptime = 1min        # time between autovacuum runs
#autovacuum_vacuum_threshold = 50    # min number of row updates before
                    # vacuum
#autovacuum_analyze_threshold = 50    # min number of row updates before
                    # analyze
#autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.2    # fraction of table size before vacuum
#autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.1    # fraction of table size before analyze
#autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 200000000    # maximum XID age before forced vacuum
                    # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age = 400000000    # maximum Multixact age
                    # before forced vacuum
                    # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 20ms    # default vacuum cost delay for
                    # autovacuum, in milliseconds;
                    # -1 means use vacuum_cost_delay
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_limit = -1    # default vacuum cost limit for
                    # autovacuum, -1 means use
                    # vacuum_cost_limit

#——————————————————————————
# CLIENT CONNECTION DEFAULTS
#——————————————————————————

# – Statement Behavior –

#search_path = ‘”$user”,public’        # schema names
#default_tablespace = ”        # a tablespace name, ” uses the default
#temp_tablespaces = ”            # a list of tablespace names, ” uses
                    # only default tablespace
#check_function_bodies = on
#default_transaction_isolation = ‘read committed’
#default_transaction_read_only = off
#default_transaction_deferrable = off
#session_replication_role = ‘origin’
#statement_timeout = 0            # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled
#lock_timeout = 0            # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled
#vacuum_freeze_min_age = 50000000
#vacuum_freeze_table_age = 150000000
#vacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age = 5000000
#vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 150000000
#bytea_output = ‘hex’            # hex, escape
#xmlbinary = ‘base64’
#xmloption = ‘content’

# – Locale and Formatting –

datestyle = ‘iso, ymd’
#intervalstyle = ‘postgres’
timezone = ‘PRC’
#timezone_abbreviations = ‘Default’    # Select the set of available time zone
                    # abbreviations.  Currently, there are
                    #  Default
                    #  Australia
                    #  India
                    # You can create your own file in
                    # share/timezonesets/.
#extra_float_digits = 0            # min -15, max 3
#client_encoding = sql_ascii        # actually, defaults to database
                    # encoding

# These settings are initialized by initdb, but they can be changed.
lc_messages = ‘zh_CN.UTF-8’            # locale for system error message
                    # strings
lc_monetary = ‘zh_CN’            # locale for monetary formatting
lc_numeric = ‘zh_CN’            # locale for number formatting
lc_time = ‘zh_CN’                # locale for time formatting

# default configuration for text search
default_text_search_config = ‘pg_catalog.simple’

# – Other Defaults –

#dynamic_library_path = ‘$libdir’
#local_preload_libraries = ”

#——————————————————————————
# LOCK MANAGEMENT
#——————————————————————————

#deadlock_timeout = 1s
#max_locks_per_transaction = 64        # min 10
                    # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Each lock table slot uses ~270 bytes of shared memory, and there are
# max_locks_per_transaction * (max_connections + max_prepared_transactions)
# lock table slots.
#max_pred_locks_per_transaction = 64    # min 10
                    # (change requires restart)

#——————————————————————————
# VERSION/PLATFORM COMPATIBILITY
#——————————————————————————

# – Previous PostgreSQL Versions –

#array_nulls = on
#backslash_quote = safe_encoding    # on, off, or safe_encoding
#default_with_oids = off
#escape_string_warning = on
#lo_compat_privileges = off
#quote_all_identifiers = off
#sql_inheritance = on
#standard_conforming_strings = on
#synchronize_seqscans = on

# – Other Platforms and Clients –

#transform_null_equals = off

#——————————————————————————
# ERROR HANDLING
#——————————————————————————

#exit_on_error = off            # terminate session on any error?
#restart_after_crash = on        # reinitialize after backend crash?

#——————————————————————————
# CONFIG FILE INCLUDES
#——————————————————————————

# These options allow settings to be loaded from files other than the
# default postgresql.conf.

#include_dir = ‘conf.d’            # include files ending in ‘.conf’ from
                    # directory ‘conf.d’
#include_if_exists = ‘exists.conf’    # include file only if it exists
#include = ‘special.conf’        # include file

#——————————————————————————
# CUSTOMIZED OPTIONS
#——————————————————————————

# Add settings for extensions here

修改后的配置文件

# —————————–
# PostgreSQL configuration file
# —————————–
#
# This file consists of lines of the form:
#
#  name = value
#
# (The “=” is optional.)  Whitespace may be used.  Comments are introduced with
# “#” anywhere on a line.  The complete list of parameter names and allowed
# values can be found in the PostgreSQL documentation.
#
# The commented-out settings shown in this file represent the default values.
# Re-commenting a setting is NOT sufficient to revert it to the default value;
# you need to reload the server.
#
# This file is read on server startup and when the server receives a SIGHUP
# signal.  If you edit the file on a running system, you have to SIGHUP the
# server for the changes to take effect, or use “pg_ctl reload”.  Some
# parameters, which are marked below, require a server shutdown and restart to
# take effect.
#
# Any parameter can also be given as a command-line option to the server, e.g.,
# “postgres -c log_connections=on”.  Some parameters can be changed at run time
# with the “SET” SQL command.
#
# Memory units:  kB = kilobytes        Time units:  ms  = milliseconds
#                MB = megabytes                    s  = seconds
#                GB = gigabytes                    min = minutes
#                                                  h  = hours
#                                                  d  = days

#——————————————————————————
# FILE LOCATIONS
#——————————————————————————

# The default values of these variables are driven from the -D command-line
# option or PGDATA environment variable, represented here as ConfigDir.

data_directory = ‘/var/lib/postgresql/9.3/main’        # use data in another directory
                    # (change requires restart)
hba_file = ‘/etc/postgresql/9.3/main/pg_hba.conf’    # host-based authentication file
                    # (change requires restart)
ident_file = ‘/etc/postgresql/9.3/main/pg_ident.conf’    # ident configuration file
                    # (change requires restart)

# If external_pid_file is not explicitly set, no extra PID file is written.
external_pid_file = ‘/var/run/postgresql/9.3-main.pid’            # write an extra PID file
                    # (change requires restart)

#——————————————————————————
# CONNECTIONS AND AUTHENTICATION
#——————————————————————————

# – Connection Settings –

listen_addresses = ‘*’        # what IP address(es) to listen on;    #监听任何地址
                    # comma-separated list of addresses;
                    # defaults to ‘localhost’; use ‘*’ for all
                    # (change requires restart)
port = 5432                # (change requires restart)
max_connections = 100            # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Increasing max_connections costs ~400 bytes of shared memory per
# connection slot, plus lock space (see max_locks_per_transaction).
#superuser_reserved_connections = 3    # (change requires restart)
unix_socket_directories = ‘/var/run/postgresql’    # comma-separated list of directories
                    # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_group = ”            # (change requires restart)
#unix_socket_permissions = 0777        # begin with 0 to use octal notation
                    # (change requires restart)
#bonjour = off                # advertise server via Bonjour
                    # (change requires restart)
#bonjour_name = ”            # defaults to the computer name
                    # (change requires restart)

# – Security and Authentication –

#authentication_timeout = 1min        # 1s-600s
ssl = true                # (change requires restart)
#ssl_ciphers = ‘DEFAULT:!LOW:!EXP:!MD5:@STRENGTH’    # allowed SSL ciphers
                    # (change requires restart)
#ssl_renegotiation_limit = 512MB    # amount of data between renegotiations
ssl_cert_file = ‘/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem’        # (change requires restart)
ssl_key_file = ‘/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key’        # (change requires restart)
#ssl_ca_file = ”            # (change requires restart)
#ssl_crl_file = ”            # (change requires restart)
password_encryption = on    #启用口令加密
#db_user_namespace = off

# Kerberos and GSSAPI
#krb_server_keyfile = ”
#krb_srvname = ‘postgres’        # (Kerberos only)
#krb_caseins_users = off

# – TCP Keepalives –
# see “man 7 tcp” for details

#tcp_keepalives_idle = 0        # TCP_KEEPIDLE, in seconds;
                    # 0 selects the system default
#tcp_keepalives_interval = 0        # TCP_KEEPINTVL, in seconds;
                    # 0 selects the system default
#tcp_keepalives_count = 0        # TCP_KEEPCNT;
                    # 0 selects the system default

#——————————————————————————
# RESOURCE USAGE (except WAL)
#——————————————————————————

# – Memory –

shared_buffers = 128MB            # min 128kB
                    # (change requires restart)
#temp_buffers = 8MB            # min 800kB
#max_prepared_transactions = 0        # zero disables the feature
                    # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Increasing max_prepared_transactions costs ~600 bytes of shared memory
# per transaction slot, plus lock space (see max_locks_per_transaction).
# It is not advisable to set max_prepared_transactions nonzero unless you
# actively intend to use prepared transactions.
#work_mem = 1MB                # min 64kB
#maintenance_work_mem = 16MB        # min 1MB
#max_stack_depth = 2MB            # min 100kB

# – Disk –

#temp_file_limit = -1            # limits per-session temp file space
                    # in kB, or -1 for no limit

# – Kernel Resource Usage –

#max_files_per_process = 1000        # min 25
                    # (change requires restart)
#shared_preload_libraries = ”        # (change requires restart)

# – Cost-Based Vacuum Delay –

#vacuum_cost_delay = 0            # 0-100 milliseconds
#vacuum_cost_page_hit = 1        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_page_miss = 10        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_page_dirty = 20        # 0-10000 credits
#vacuum_cost_limit = 200        # 1-10000 credits

# – Background Writer –

#bgwriter_delay = 200ms            # 10-10000ms between rounds
#bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 100        # 0-1000 max buffers written/round
#bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 2.0        # 0-10.0 multipler on buffers scanned/round

# – Asynchronous Behavior –

#effective_io_concurrency = 1        # 1-1000; 0 disables prefetching

#——————————————————————————
# WRITE AHEAD LOG
#——————————————————————————

# – Settings –

#wal_level = minimal            # minimal, archive, or hot_standby
                    # (change requires restart)
#fsync = on                # turns forced synchronization on or off
#synchronous_commit = on        # synchronization level;
                    # off, local, remote_write, or on
#wal_sync_method = fsync        # the default is the first option
                    # supported by the operating system:
                    #  open_datasync
                    #  fdatasync (default on Linux)
                    #  fsync
                    #  fsync_writethrough
                    #  open_sync
#full_page_writes = on            # recover from partial page writes
#wal_buffers = -1            # min 32kB, -1 sets based on shared_buffers
                    # (change requires restart)
#wal_writer_delay = 200ms        # 1-10000 milliseconds

#commit_delay = 0            # range 0-100000, in microseconds
#commit_siblings = 5            # range 1-1000

# – Checkpoints –

#checkpoint_segments = 3        # in logfile segments, min 1, 16MB each
#checkpoint_timeout = 5min        # range 30s-1h
#checkpoint_completion_target = 0.5    # checkpoint target duration, 0.0 – 1.0
#checkpoint_warning = 30s        # 0 disables

# – Archiving –

#archive_mode = off        # allows archiving to be done
                # (change requires restart)
#archive_command = ”        # command to use to archive a logfile segment
                # placeholders: %p = path of file to archive
                #              %f = file name only
                # e.g. ‘test ! -f /mnt/server/archivedir/%f && cp %p /mnt/server/archivedir/%f’
#archive_timeout = 0        # force a logfile segment switch after this
                # number of seconds; 0 disables

#——————————————————————————
# REPLICATION
#——————————————————————————

# – Sending Server(s) –

# Set these on the master and on any standby that will send replication data.

#max_wal_senders = 0        # max number of walsender processes
                # (change requires restart)
#wal_keep_segments = 0        # in logfile segments, 16MB each; 0 disables
#wal_sender_timeout = 60s    # in milliseconds; 0 disables

# – Master Server –

# These settings are ignored on a standby server.

#synchronous_standby_names = ”    # standby servers that provide sync rep
                # comma-separated list of application_name
                # from standby(s); ‘*’ = all
#vacuum_defer_cleanup_age = 0    # number of xacts by which cleanup is delayed

# – Standby Servers –

# These settings are ignored on a master server.

#hot_standby = off            # “on” allows queries during recovery
                    # (change requires restart)
#max_standby_archive_delay = 30s    # max delay before canceling queries
                    # when reading WAL from archive;
                    # -1 allows indefinite delay
#max_standby_streaming_delay = 30s    # max delay before canceling queries
                    # when reading streaming WAL;
                    # -1 allows indefinite delay
#wal_receiver_status_interval = 10s    # send replies at least this often
                    # 0 disables
#hot_standby_feedback = off        # send info from standby to prevent
                    # query conflicts
#wal_receiver_timeout = 60s        # time that receiver waits for
                    # communication from master
                    # in milliseconds; 0 disables

#——————————————————————————
# QUERY TUNING
#——————————————————————————

# – Planner Method Configuration –

#enable_bitmapscan = on
#enable_hashagg = on
#enable_hashjoin = on
#enable_indexscan = on
#enable_indexonlyscan = on
#enable_material = on
#enable_mergejoin = on
#enable_nestloop = on
#enable_seqscan = on
#enable_sort = on
#enable_tidscan = on

# – Planner Cost Constants –

#seq_page_cost = 1.0            # measured on an arbitrary scale
#random_page_cost = 4.0            # same scale as above
#cpu_tuple_cost = 0.01            # same scale as above
#cpu_index_tuple_cost = 0.005        # same scale as above
#cpu_operator_cost = 0.0025        # same scale as above
#effective_cache_size = 128MB

# – Genetic Query Optimizer –

#geqo = on
#geqo_threshold = 12
#geqo_effort = 5            # range 1-10
#geqo_pool_size = 0            # selects default based on effort
#geqo_generations = 0            # selects default based on effort
#geqo_selection_bias = 2.0        # range 1.5-2.0
#geqo_seed = 0.0            # range 0.0-1.0

# – Other Planner Options –

#default_statistics_target = 100    # range 1-10000
#constraint_exclusion = partition    # on, off, or partition
#cursor_tuple_fraction = 0.1        # range 0.0-1.0
#from_collapse_limit = 8
#join_collapse_limit = 8        # 1 disables collapsing of explicit
                    # JOIN clauses

#——————————————————————————
# ERROR REPORTING AND LOGGING
#——————————————————————————

# – Where to Log –

#log_destination = ‘stderr’        # Valid values are combinations of
                    # stderr, csvlog, syslog, and eventlog,
                    # depending on platform.  csvlog
                    # requires logging_collector to be on.

# This is used when logging to stderr:
#logging_collector = off        # Enable capturing of stderr and csvlog
                    # into log files. Required to be on for
                    # csvlogs.
                    # (change requires restart)

# These are only used if logging_collector is on:
#log_directory = ‘pg_log’        # directory where log files are written,
                    # can be absolute or relative to PGDATA
#log_filename = ‘postgresql-%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S.log’    # log file name pattern,
                    # can include strftime() escapes
#log_file_mode = 0600            # creation mode for log files,
                    # begin with 0 to use octal notation
#log_truncate_on_rotation = off        # If on, an existing log file with the
                    # same name as the new log file will be
                    # truncated rather than appended to.
                    # But such truncation only occurs on
                    # time-driven rotation, not on restarts
                    # or size-driven rotation.  Default is
                    # off, meaning append to existing files
                    # in all cases.
#log_rotation_age = 1d            # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
                    # happen after that time.  0 disables.
#log_rotation_size = 10MB        # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
                    # happen after that much log output.
                    # 0 disables.

# These are relevant when logging to syslog:
#syslog_facility = ‘LOCAL0’
#syslog_ident = ‘postgres’

# This is only relevant when logging to eventlog (win32):
#event_source = ‘PostgreSQL’

# – When to Log –

#client_min_messages = notice        # values in order of decreasing detail:
                    #  debug5
                    #  debug4
                    #  debug3
                    #  debug2
                    #  debug1
                    #  log
                    #  notice
                    #  warning
                    #  error

#log_min_messages = warning        # values in order of decreasing detail:
                    #  debug5
                    #  debug4
                    #  debug3
                    #  debug2
                    #  debug1
                    #  info
                    #  notice
                    #  warning
                    #  error
                    #  log
                    #  fatal
                    #  panic

#log_min_error_statement = error    # values in order of decreasing detail:
                    #  debug5
                    #  debug4
                    #  debug3
                    #  debug2
                    #  debug1
                    #  info
                    #  notice
                    #  warning
                    #  error
                    #  log
                    #  fatal
                    #  panic (effectively off)

#log_min_duration_statement = -1    # -1 is disabled, 0 logs all statements
                    # and their durations, > 0 logs only
                    # statements running at least this number
                    # of milliseconds

# – What to Log –

#debug_print_parse = off
#debug_print_rewritten = off
#debug_print_plan = off
#debug_pretty_print = on
#log_checkpoints = off
#log_connections = off
#log_disconnections = off
#log_duration = off
#log_error_verbosity = default        # terse, default, or verbose messages
#log_hostname = off
log_line_prefix = ‘%t ‘            # special values:
                    #  %a = application name
                    #  %u = user name
                    #  %d = database name
                    #  %r = remote host and port
                    #  %h = remote host
                    #  %p = process ID
                    #  %t = timestamp without milliseconds
                    #  %m = timestamp with milliseconds
                    #  %i = command tag
                    #  %e = SQL state
                    #  %c = session ID
                    #  %l = session line number
                    #  %s = session start timestamp
                    #  %v = virtual transaction ID
                    #  %x = transaction ID (0 if none)
                    #  %q = stop here in non-session
                    #        processes
                    #  %% = ‘%’
                    # e.g. ‘<%u%%%d> ‘
#log_lock_waits = off            # log lock waits >= deadlock_timeout
#log_statement = ‘none’            # none, ddl, mod, all
#log_temp_files = -1            # log temporary files equal or larger
                    # than the specified size in kilobytes;
                    # -1 disables, 0 logs all temp files
log_timezone = ‘PRC’

#——————————————————————————
# RUNTIME STATISTICS
#——————————————————————————

# – Query/Index Statistics Collector –

#track_activities = on
#track_counts = on
#track_io_timing = off
#track_functions = none            # none, pl, all
#track_activity_query_size = 1024    # (change requires restart)
#update_process_title = on
#stats_temp_directory = ‘pg_stat_tmp’

# – Statistics Monitoring –

#log_parser_stats = off
#log_planner_stats = off
#log_executor_stats = off
#log_statement_stats = off

#——————————————————————————
# AUTOVACUUM PARAMETERS
#——————————————————————————

#autovacuum = on            # Enable autovacuum subprocess?  ‘on’
                    # requires track_counts to also be on.
#log_autovacuum_min_duration = -1    # -1 disables, 0 logs all actions and
                    # their durations, > 0 logs only
                    # actions running at least this number
                    # of milliseconds.
#autovacuum_max_workers = 3        # max number of autovacuum subprocesses
                    # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_naptime = 1min        # time between autovacuum runs
#autovacuum_vacuum_threshold = 50    # min number of row updates before
                    # vacuum
#autovacuum_analyze_threshold = 50    # min number of row updates before
                    # analyze
#autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.2    # fraction of table size before vacuum
#autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.1    # fraction of table size before analyze
#autovacuum_freeze_max_age = 200000000    # maximum XID age before forced vacuum
                    # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age = 400000000    # maximum Multixact age
                    # before forced vacuum
                    # (change requires restart)
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay = 20ms    # default vacuum cost delay for
                    # autovacuum, in milliseconds;
                    # -1 means use vacuum_cost_delay
#autovacuum_vacuum_cost_limit = -1    # default vacuum cost limit for
                    # autovacuum, -1 means use
                    # vacuum_cost_limit

#——————————————————————————
# CLIENT CONNECTION DEFAULTS
#——————————————————————————

# – Statement Behavior –

#search_path = ‘”$user”,public’        # schema names
#default_tablespace = ”        # a tablespace name, ” uses the default
#temp_tablespaces = ”            # a list of tablespace names, ” uses
                    # only default tablespace
#check_function_bodies = on
#default_transaction_isolation = ‘read committed’
#default_transaction_read_only = off
#default_transaction_deferrable = off
#session_replication_role = ‘origin’
#statement_timeout = 0            # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled
#lock_timeout = 0            # in milliseconds, 0 is disabled
#vacuum_freeze_min_age = 50000000
#vacuum_freeze_table_age = 150000000
#vacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age = 5000000
#vacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age = 150000000
#bytea_output = ‘hex’            # hex, escape
#xmlbinary = ‘base64’
#xmloption = ‘content’

# – Locale and Formatting –

datestyle = ‘iso, ymd’
#intervalstyle = ‘postgres’
timezone = ‘PRC’
#timezone_abbreviations = ‘Default’    # Select the set of available time zone
                    # abbreviations.  Currently, there are
                    #  Default
                    #  Australia
                    #  India
                    # You can create your own file in
                    # share/timezonesets/.
#extra_float_digits = 0            # min -15, max 3
#client_encoding = sql_ascii        # actually, defaults to database
                    # encoding

# These settings are initialized by initdb, but they can be changed.
lc_messages = ‘zh_CN.UTF-8’            # locale for system error message
                    # strings
lc_monetary = ‘zh_CN’            # locale for monetary formatting
lc_numeric = ‘zh_CN’            # locale for number formatting
lc_time = ‘zh_CN’                # locale for time formatting

# default configuration for text search
default_text_search_config = ‘pg_catalog.simple’

# – Other Defaults –

#dynamic_library_path = ‘$libdir’
#local_preload_libraries = ”

#——————————————————————————
# LOCK MANAGEMENT
#——————————————————————————

#deadlock_timeout = 1s
#max_locks_per_transaction = 64        # min 10
                    # (change requires restart)
# Note:  Each lock table slot uses ~270 bytes of shared memory, and there are
# max_locks_per_transaction * (max_connections + max_prepared_transactions)
# lock table slots.
#max_pred_locks_per_transaction = 64    # min 10
                    # (change requires restart)

#——————————————————————————
# VERSION/PLATFORM COMPATIBILITY
#——————————————————————————

# – Previous PostgreSQL Versions –

#array_nulls = on
#backslash_quote = safe_encoding    # on, off, or safe_encoding
#default_with_oids = off
#escape_string_warning = on
#lo_compat_privileges = off
#quote_all_identifiers = off
#sql_inheritance = on
#standard_conforming_strings = on
#synchronize_seqscans = on

# – Other Platforms and Clients –

#transform_null_equals = off

#——————————————————————————
# ERROR HANDLING
#——————————————————————————

#exit_on_error = off            # terminate session on any error?
#restart_after_crash = on        # reinitialize after backend crash?

#——————————————————————————
# CONFIG FILE INCLUDES
#——————————————————————————

# These options allow settings to be loaded from files other than the
# default postgresql.conf.

#include_dir = ‘conf.d’            # include files ending in ‘.conf’ from
                    # directory ‘conf.d’
#include_if_exists = ‘exists.conf’    # include file only if it exists
#include = ‘special.conf’        # include file

#——————————————————————————
# CUSTOMIZED OPTIONS
#——————————————————————————

# Add settings for extensions here

08、修改 PostgresSQL 数据库配置文件 pg_hba.conf

vi /etc/postgresql/9.3/main/pg_hba.conf

修改前的配置文件

# PostgreSQL Client Authentication Configuration File
# ===================================================
#
# Refer to the “Client Authentication” section in the PostgreSQL
# documentation for a complete description of this file.  A short
# synopsis follows.
#
# This file controls: which hosts are allowed to connect, how clients
# are authenticated, which PostgreSQL user names they can use, which
# databases they can access.  Records take one of these forms:
#
# local      DATABASE  USER  METHOD  [OPTIONS]
# host      DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]
# hostssl    DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]
# hostnossl  DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]
#
# (The uppercase items must be replaced by actual values.)
#
# The first field is the connection type: “local” is a Unix-domain
# socket, “host” is either a plain or SSL-encrypted TCP/IP socket,
# “hostssl” is an SSL-encrypted TCP/IP socket, and “hostnossl” is a
# plain TCP/IP socket.
#
# DATABASE can be “all”, “sameuser”, “samerole”, “replication”, a
# database name, or a comma-separated list thereof. The “all”
# keyword does not match “replication”. Access to replication
# must be enabled in a separate record (see example below).
#
# USER can be “all”, a user name, a group name prefixed with “+”, or a
# comma-separated list thereof.  In both the DATABASE and USER fields
# you can also write a file name prefixed with “@” to include names
# from a separate file.
#
# ADDRESS specifies the set of hosts the record matches.  It can be a
# host name, or it is made up of an IP address and a CIDR mask that is
# an integer (between 0 and 32 (IPv4) or 128 (IPv6) inclusive) that
# specifies the number of significant bits in the mask.  A host name
# that starts with a dot (.) matches a suffix of the actual host name.
# Alternatively, you can write an IP address and netmask in separate
# columns to specify the set of hosts.  Instead of a CIDR-address, you
# can write “samehost” to match any of the server’s own IP addresses,
# or “samenet” to match any address in any subnet that the server is
# directly connected to.
#
# METHOD can be “trust”, “reject”, “md5”, “password”, “gss”, “sspi”,
# “krb5”, “ident”, “peer”, “pam”, “ldap”, “radius” or “cert”.  Note that
# “password” sends passwords in clear text; “md5” is preferred since
# it sends encrypted passwords.
#
# OPTIONS are a set of options for the authentication in the format
# NAME=VALUE.  The available options depend on the different
# authentication methods — refer to the “Client Authentication”
# section in the documentation for a list of which options are
# available for which authentication methods.
#
# Database and user names containing spaces, commas, quotes and other
# special characters must be quoted.  Quoting one of the keywords
# “all”, “sameuser”, “samerole” or “replication” makes the name lose
# its special character, and just match a database or username with
# that name.
#
# This file is read on server startup and when the postmaster receives
# a SIGHUP signal.  If you edit the file on a running system, you have
# to SIGHUP the postmaster for the changes to take effect.  You can
# use “pg_ctl reload” to do that.

# Put your actual configuration here
# ———————————-
#
# If you want to allow non-local connections, you need to add more
# “host” records.  In that case you will also need to make PostgreSQL
# listen on a non-local interface via the listen_addresses
# configuration parameter, or via the -i or -h command line switches.

 

# DO NOT DISABLE!
# If you change this first entry you will need to make sure that the
# database superuser can access the database using some other method.
# Noninteractive access to all databases is required during automatic
# maintenance (custom daily cronjobs, replication, and similar tasks).
#
# Database administrative login by Unix domain socket
local  all            postgres                                peer

# TYPE  DATABASE        USER            ADDRESS                METHOD

# “local” is for Unix domain socket connections only
local  all            all                                    peer
# IPv4 local connections:
host    all            all            127.0.0.1/32            md5
# IPv6 local connections:
host    all            all            ::1/128                md5
# Allow replication connections from localhost, by a user with the
# replication privilege.
#local  replication    postgres                                peer
#host    replication    postgres        127.0.0.1/32            md5
#host    replication    postgres        ::1/128                md5

修改后的配置文件

# PostgreSQL Client Authentication Configuration File
# ===================================================
#
# Refer to the “Client Authentication” section in the PostgreSQL
# documentation for a complete description of this file.  A short
# synopsis follows.
#
# This file controls: which hosts are allowed to connect, how clients
# are authenticated, which PostgreSQL user names they can use, which
# databases they can access.  Records take one of these forms:
#
# local      DATABASE  USER  METHOD  [OPTIONS]
# host      DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]
# hostssl    DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]
# hostnossl  DATABASE  USER  ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTIONS]
#
# (The uppercase items must be replaced by actual values.)
#
# The first field is the connection type: “local” is a Unix-domain
# socket, “host” is either a plain or SSL-encrypted TCP/IP socket,
# “hostssl” is an SSL-encrypted TCP/IP socket, and “hostnossl” is a
# plain TCP/IP socket.
#
# DATABASE can be “all”, “sameuser”, “samerole”, “replication”, a
# database name, or a comma-separated list thereof. The “all”
# keyword does not match “replication”. Access to replication
# must be enabled in a separate record (see example below).
#
# USER can be “all”, a user name, a group name prefixed with “+”, or a
# comma-separated list thereof.  In both the DATABASE and USER fields
# you can also write a file name prefixed with “@” to include names
# from a separate file.
#
# ADDRESS specifies the set of hosts the record matches.  It can be a
# host name, or it is made up of an IP address and a CIDR mask that is
# an integer (between 0 and 32 (IPv4) or 128 (IPv6) inclusive) that
# specifies the number of significant bits in the mask.  A host name
# that starts with a dot (.) matches a suffix of the actual host name.
# Alternatively, you can write an IP address and netmask in separate
# columns to specify the set of hosts.  Instead of a CIDR-address, you
# can write “samehost” to match any of the server’s own IP addresses,
# or “samenet” to match any address in any subnet that the server is
# directly connected to.
#
# METHOD can be “trust”, “reject”, “md5”, “password”, “gss”, “sspi”,
# “krb5”, “ident”, “peer”, “pam”, “ldap”, “radius” or “cert”.  Note that
# “password” sends passwords in clear text; “md5” is preferred since
# it sends encrypted passwords.
#
# OPTIONS are a set of options for the authentication in the format
# NAME=VALUE.  The available options depend on the different
# authentication methods — refer to the “Client Authentication”
# section in the documentation for a list of which options are
# available for which authentication methods.
#
# Database and user names containing spaces, commas, quotes and other
# special characters must be quoted.  Quoting one of the keywords
# “all”, “sameuser”, “samerole” or “replication” makes the name lose
# its special character, and just match a database or username with
# that name.
#
# This file is read on server startup and when the postmaster receives
# a SIGHUP signal.  If you edit the file on a running system, you have
# to SIGHUP the postmaster for the changes to take effect.  You can
# use “pg_ctl reload” to do that.

# Put your actual configuration here
# ———————————-
#
# If you want to allow non-local connections, you need to add more
# “host” records.  In that case you will also need to make PostgreSQL
# listen on a non-local interface via the listen_addresses
# configuration parameter, or via the -i or -h command line switches.

 

# DO NOT DISABLE!
# If you change this first entry you will need to make sure that the
# database superuser can access the database using some other method.
# Noninteractive access to all databases is required during automatic
# maintenance (custom daily cronjobs, replication, and similar tasks).
#
# Database administrative login by Unix domain socket
local  all            postgres                                peer

# TYPE  DATABASE        USER            ADDRESS                METHOD

# “local” is for Unix domain socket connections only
local  all            all                                    peer
# IPv4 local connections:
host    all            all            127.0.0.1/32            md5
# IPv6 local connections:
host    all            all            ::1/128                md5
# Allow replication connections from localhost, by a user with the
# replication privilege.
#local  replication    postgres                                peer
#host    replication    postgres        127.0.0.1/32            md5
#host    replication    postgres        ::1/128                md5
# to allow your client visiting postgresql server
host all all 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 md5

最后一行 host 表示允许类型是主机;第一个 all 是允许访问数据库名称;第二个 all 是允许用户;第一个 0.0.0.0 是允许访问 IP Address;第二个 0.0.0.0 是允许访问 SubNet Mask;最后 md5 表示密码加密方式,如果将 md5 改成 trust,在指定范围的主机访问数据库时无需提供密码。

IP Address 和 SubNet Mask 项也可修改为您的机器 IP 地址 (譬如:10.13.19.53)和子网掩码 (譬如:255.255.255.255),这样就只有您自己的主机才可远程访问数据库。要使用一个 IP 地址范围,只需要把 SubNet Mask 设置成合适的值。

若把 SubNet Mask 设成 0.0.0.0,则所有主机均可访问数据库 (IP Address 可任意设定)。若将 md5 改成 trust,可让指定范围的主机访问指定数据库时无需提供密码。

09、重启 PostgresSQL 9.3.5

root:# /etc/init.d/postgresql restart
 * Restarting PostgreSQL 9.3 database server                                                                                                      [ OK ]
root:#

10、登陆测试 PostgresSQL 9.3.5

root:# psql -U postgres -h 127.0.0.1
Password for user postgres:    #第 06 步设置的 postgres 数据库用户口令
psql (9.3.5)
SSL connection (cipher: DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA, bits: 256)
Type “help” for help.

postgres=# \q
could not save history to file “/root/.psql_history”: 没有那个文件或目录    #重新登录就可以了,由于第一次文件是不存在的
root:# psql -U postgres -h 127.0.0.1
Password for user postgres:    #第 06 步设置的 postgres 数据库用户口令
psql (9.3.5)
SSL connection (cipher: DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA, bits: 256)
Type “help” for help.

postgres=# \q
root:#

————————————华丽丽的分割线————————————

CentOS 6.3环境下yum安装PostgreSQL 9.3 http://www.searu.org/Linux/2014-05/101787.htm

PostgreSQL缓存详述 http://www.searu.org/Linux/2013-07/87778.htm

Windows平台编译 PostgreSQL http://www.searu.org/Linux/2013-05/85114.htm

Ubuntu下LAPP(Linux+Apache+PostgreSQL+PHP)环境的配置与安装 http://www.searu.org/Linux/2013-04/83564.htm

Ubuntu上的phppgAdmin安装及配置 http://www.searu.org/Linux/2011-08/40520.htm

CentOS平台下安装PostgreSQL9.3 http://www.searu.org/Linux/2014-05/101723.htm

PostgreSQL配置Streaming Replication集群 http://www.searu.org/Linux/2014-05/101724.htm

如何在CentOS 7/6.5/6.4 下安装PostgreSQL 9.3 与 phpPgAdmin  http://www.searu.org/Linux/2014-12/110108.htm

————————————华丽丽的分割线————————————

PostgreSQL 的详细介绍请点这里
PostgreSQL 的下载地址请点这里

更多Ubuntu相关信息见Ubuntu 专题页面 http://www.searu.org?tid=2

未经允许不得转载:SEARU.ORG » Ubuntu Server 14.04 下安装 PostgreSQL 9.3.5 数据库

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